High conductivity copper is an excellent material for power busbar and audio conductor. Its characteristics are high purity, less material defects, good appearance and soft conductor. For a long time, there is a contradiction between high strength and high conductivity in the research and preparation of copper materials. This contradiction even runs through the whole research of conductive materials. In order to solve this problem, we mainly start from two aspects: on the one hand, strengthening the copper matrix; on the other hand, we try to introduce the second phase into the copper matrix for strengthening. Accordingly, two kinds of preparation methods have been formed: alloying method and artificial composite material method.
Alloying is one of the basic methods to prepare high strength and high conductivity copper materials. That is, by adding certain alloying elements to the copper matrix, solid solution or supersaturated solid solution can be formed. Lattice transformation or aging precipitation of strengthening phase occurs in the copper matrix, resulting in copper alloys with both high strength and high conductivity.
Artificial Composite Material Method: In order to overcome the insufficiency that the strength of copper alloy produced by alloying method has not been improved greatly, the artificial composite method that the second phase particles, whiskers and fibers are added artificially to strengthen the copper matrix or that the strength of the strengthening phase itself is used to increase the strength of copper material has been extensively studied. According to the main characteristics of the preparation methods of composite materials, they can be roughly divided into two categories: powder metallurgy method and plastic deformation method.